In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in with Emancipation and the Port Royal experiment rather than Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamationissued on January 1, Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in TennesseeArkansasand Louisiana during the war. He experimented by giving land to blacks in South Carolina.
In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the south as starting in with Emancipation and the Port Royal experiment rather than Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamationissued on January 1, Army, President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in TennesseeArkansasand Louisiana during the war.
By fallthe new President Andrew Johnson declared the war goals of national unity and the ending of slavery achieved and reconstruction completed. Republicans in Congress, refusing to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected and refused to seat new members of Congress, some of whom had been high-ranking Confederate officials a few months before.
Johnson broke with the Republicans after vetoing two key bills that supported the Freedmen's Bureau and provided federal civil rights to the freedmen. The Congressional elections turned on the issue of Reconstruction, producing a sweeping Republican victory in the North, and providing the Radical Republicans with sufficient control of Congress to override Johnson's vetoes and commence their own "Radical Reconstruction" in In ten states,  coalitions of freedmen, recent black and white arrivals from the North carpetbaggersand white Southerners who supported Reconstruction scalawags cooperated to form Republican biracial state governments.
They introduced various reconstruction programs including: Conservative opponents called the Republican regimes corrupt and instigated violence toward freedmen and whites who supported Reconstruction.
Most of the violence was carried out by members of the Ku Klux Klan KKKa secretive terrorist organization closely allied with the southern Democratic Party.
Klan members attacked and intimidated blacks seeking to exercise their new civil rights, as well as Republican politicians in the south favoring those civil rights. One such politician murdered by the Klan on the eve of the presidential election was Republican Congressman James M.
Widespread violence in the south led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S. Grant inwhich suppressed the Klan. Nevertheless, white Democratscalling themselves " Redeemers ", regained control of the south state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control state elections.
A deep national economic depression following the Panic of led to major Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North. The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.
With the Compromise ofmilitary intervention in Southern politics ceased and Republican control collapsed in the last three state governments in the South.
This was followed by a period which white Southerners labeled "Redemption", during which white-dominated state legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws and, beginning indisenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites through a combination of constitutional amendments and electoral laws.
The white Democratic Southerners' memory of Reconstruction played a major role in imposing the system of white supremacy and second-class citizenship for blacks using laws known as Jim Crow laws. Intense controversy erupted throughout the South over these issues.
By the s, Reconstruction had officially provided freedmen with equal rights under the constitution, and blacks were voting and taking political office. Republican legislatures, coalitions of whites and blacks, established the first public school systems and numerous charitable institutions in the South.
White paramilitary organizationsespecially the Ku Klux Klan and also the White League and Red Shirts formed with the political aim of driving out the Republicans.
They also disrupted political organizing and terrorized blacks to bar them from the polls.This pamphlet discusses the history of this African American denomination, educational efforts among people of color in Ohio, and other issues vital to the African American community during Reconstruction.
Administrators established teaching schools and other institutions of higher education for African Americans during Reconstruction. Schools were set up in New Orleans, Shreveport, Baton Rouge, Amite, and other sites around the state to train black teachers.
During and after the Reconstruction period, African Americans in cities organized historical, literary, and musical societies. The literary achievements of African Americans included the historical writings of T.
Thomas Fortune and George Washington Williams. The Emancipation Proclamation in freed African Americans in rebel states, and after the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment emancipated all U.S. slaves wherever they were.
As a result, the mass of Southern blacks now faced the difficulty Northern blacks had confronted--that of a free people. The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal.
Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. A comprehensive examination of the restrictions imposed upon African-Americans in the United States of America through culture is examined by art historian Guy C.
McElroy in the catalog to the exhibit "Facing History: The Black Image in American Art ".